What is Poverty? Causes, Effects and Remedial Measures

Being poor is being weak in material wealth say money, gold, property etc. “Poverty is humiliation, the sense of being dependent on them, and of being forced to accept rudeness, insults, and indifference when we seek help.” —Latvia 1998. Poverty means the condition or state of being poor and not having material wealth to facilitate oneself with most required necessities of life.

Poverty is a multi dimensional concept with its social, economic, political, material and physical matters. It is a place for an individual, family or society where basic life related needs cannot be fulfilled and scarcity of wealth, money or property pulls back from sufficiency. Bread, house and clothes can’t be accessed and wellbeing whether physical, psychological or social remains aloof.

Poverty is a state where society is always otherwise or confronts individuals. Frustration, anger, quarreling with one another, and alienation are its side effects. It can affect socially, psychologically, and push into the marginalized sect. It is a state where income is less and expenditure high.

Factors that lead to poverty

Over population is the most important factor that pushes India into the sect of poverty. Family size is big both in cities and villages, income meager, basic needs far away that furthers it more. It is near to cross one hundred forty crore mark so poverty is roaming and looming to darken the future.

Agricultural production is less because poor techniques of production are used, machinery is a weakling, psychologically people are backward they don’t take initiatives for innovation in this field to increase their income with sufficient production though India is rich in ability of agricultural production but lack of efficient workers and wages contribute to its fast growing pace of poverty.

Economy of our country is weak and no proper aid is provided to any sect for increasing the finance. Most of the manual force is longing not to work so poverty is their fate.

Land, cattle and other sectors are distributed not in same manner, lower classes have no asset and higher classes are endowed with high level assets while middle class is prospering at brisk pace, and poverty is just digging deep into the structure of society. According to reports more than 80% of wealth is the hands of 17/20% rich people which gives no chance to poor to avail richness.

Unemployment and weak mentality contribute their good share in pacing poverty a recent discourse affirms that 77% families in India have no constant income sources, while much percentage is living on the roads with no work at all.

With the fast growing price of essential commodities a sect of people is not able to have sufficient resources for their survival. They are not able to meet the demands of their families which lead them to poverty. Covid/19 has further exaggerated the condition as no work is available which will weaken the country and poor and middle classes financially.

Lack of technical and skill oriented education is another big threat. People are not aware about their talent and education is outdated with waste syllabus schemes which give way to poverty. Educated youth depends upon govt. jobs which have killed their mental capacity; they are not working for their wellbeing and betterment of society.

Caste system, especially untouchability has alienated people from one another. Lower sect people are not preferred for jobs by higher caste people which snatches right to earn and live from many that gives rise to this social evil. It keeps alive class conflict and marginalizes the subaltern in our nation.

Man power is unskilled, technical hand is hard to find, in digital and technical world of computer technically sound labour is not available which increases poverty. Education is outdated and academic which is not developing a ward to make him\her earning unit and contributing bit to society.

If women are allowed to contribute their share it will make better our society and country. Gender discrimination restricts women to come out and do their job for the home and society, patriarchy has barred their entry to technical world, if not manual work but technological world they can share to contribute by earning with their technical hand and govt. has made available many schemes for women empowerment but they must be helped by their narrow minded males.

Corruption and material mindedness have caused a good share in augmenting poverty. Though govt. has made lot of efforts to for the provision of beneficial schemes for people but corruption and money mindedness has been a big barrier between beneficiaries and schemes.  Poverty is on the rise now.

India is a country where climate is not mostly suitable for production and depends upon rainfall which is not sufficient and sometimes more rainfall damages the crop and at other times it comes in less quantity. Land is enough but all land is not brought under production. Some areas are hilly and have no water resources which lessen the productivity and poverty reigns. Climate also limits the manual labour which causes more poverty.

How poverty effects

Poverty has drastic effect on health of people. Whether infants, old aged or adults those who suffer from malnutrition are vulnerable to diseases like anemia, cardiac problems, mental frustration etc. In India poverty gives rise to lowest income in big families resulting in malnutrition and according to reports 38 out of 1000 babies die within a period of one year due to this deadly social stigma. Wellbeing and living standard also remain far away from the families with low income. No proper sanitation and no balanced diet are the causes of poor health while a sound mind has a sound body can never be accessed in this condition. 30% of population residing on roads and in slums eats food on papers and many die of hunger.

Social problems like increasing crime rate and violence and domestic abuse keep rising. Having no employment, people try to earn by wrong methods which makes them criminal and violent. With lower or no education mixed with no moral education makes people become enemies of one another and crime and violence take pace.

People face homelessness, frustration, psychological depression and mental illness when they can’t earn and are not able to establish in life. Child labour is increasing at brisk pace.  Mostly families with large quantity of children and lower income suffer child labour which is a legal crime in which under age children become labours. Either their labour is forced or they roam hither and thither in this country. Poverty gives rise to terrorism, girl child and women have to face sexual abuse. While poor girls not able to afford dowry go marriage less and suffer mental dilemma and some are sexually assaulted easily.

Poverty gives rise to low income and low economic growth, lower development of both nation and family take birth and pace.


Population growth should be checked and earning methods and hands must be increased.

Employment strategies must be looked upon to create technical earning hands and employment opportunities must be maximized in every sector whether public or private.

Extra wealth and resources distribution must be utilized for general benefit.

Factories and entrepreneurs that are hubs of employment must be encouraged and their number must be optimized for creation of more employment.

Essential needs of life must be speedily accessed to the people in need by the govt. and those who have resources, voluntarily.

Education must be made job-oriented as well as information about the effects of poverty must be maximized so people, in general, can aid the poor.

The caste system must be checked along with corruption to bring one downtrodden section to live, earn and so contribute their share to the improvement of society.

What is Poverty? Causes, Effects and Remedial Measures

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