Indus valley civilization is known as one of the earlier civilizations on earth. This civilization is believed to have lived between 3300BC-1700 BC in the Indian subcontinent. The name “Indus Valley Civilization” was given based on their settlements around Indus river basins and its tributaries. The Indus River flows all through Pakistan.
Harappa and Mohenjo Daro were the two featured largest cities of Indus valley civilisation. The people of Indus valley civilization were sophisticated planners is backed by the discovery of their artefacts, town construction works, drainage, sewer systems, warehouses, etc.
One of the important features of Indus valley civilization is that people were users of bronze metal. That is why it is more often called Bronze-age society. It is to be noted here for the sake of your exams that the people of Indus valley civilization had no knowledge of iron metal. The excavations so far performed by archaeologists reveal bronze metal made things.
There is also no evidence suggesting people of Indus valley civilization were warriors as no traces of warfare have been found so far by archaeologists. There were instead traders, who were very active in trading their produce with other civilizations such as Mesopotamia.
The discovery of toys suggests that Indus valley societies were entertainment lovers. It is for this reason historians for many years thought that Indus valley society was populated by children. Although it wasn’t the case as even adults artefacts like chess were also discovered.
Animism religion is believed to have been practiced by Indus people as suggested by the discovered objects with prints of elephant, bull, etc. Their religious belief system suggests that they were believers of some supernatural power.
Agriculture and farming were their main economic activities. They were also masterminds of irrigation systems in which proper channelizing to transport water to agriculture fields was used. They were also users of pottery, and jewellery. Their built their houses with baked clay bricks.
Indus valley civilization had a proper social class – rulers and followers. The rulers lived in citadels, constructions situated at higher places whereas followers who constituted of farmers and traders would live outside citadels.
The exact dissolution or decline causes of the Indus valley civilization are not known. However, many scholars have come up with several speculations for their decline – devastating floods, drought, hunger, volcanic eruptions, and devastating invasion by Aryans – people of Central Asia.