Unemployment is a state where an individual fit for the job is not in possession of the same. It may be a condition where a person seeking a job to raise his economic condition is not having it. It may be those attaining the mature age but depending on others for their financial assistance. In a family an employed had to feed three to five unemployed and that makes families financially weak and vulnerable social diseases.
There are several types of unemployment, these are frictional in which the worker has left the job or was fired and is searching for a new one. Structural unemployment in which the skill of a worker didn’t match the demands and skills of an organization or worker cannot reach the location due to some inconvenience. The third one is voluntary unemployment where a worker wishes to remain in his home or did not want to work. The fourth one is deficit demand unemployment where workers are forced to quit job when the demand for production decreases.
The ten countries with the lowest unemployment rates according to the report given by The International Labor Organization’s World Employment and Social Outlook: areas wit Cambodia with 0.30%, Qatar having 0.60%, Thailand going to 0.70%, Belarus, 1.0% reaching, Benin, 1.0%, Gibraltar working on, 1.0%, Tonga approaching to 1.1%, the Isle of Man limiting itself to 1.1%), Laos with 1.5%, United Arab Emirates reaches 1.60%. This is really good news. As a researcher I would like to mention when any country advances economically it can afford employment to other nations. But what is worthwhile is that more than four million people worldwide are working with the poorest conditions with a lack of essential commodities. This gives rise to poor nutrition and physical and mental health problems arise.
According to the report by International Labor Organization’s World Employment and Social Outlook, ten countries with highest unemployment rates are Burkina Faso with 77%, Syria reaching 50%, Senegal going to 48%, Haiti lowering to 40.60%, Kenya going further down to 40%, Djibouti appearing at 40%, the Marshall Islands with focus on 36%, Namibia with 34%, Kiribati reaching to 30.60%, Libya with 30% unemployment rates.
The world’s unemployment has come down 5% in 2018 and is expected reach 4.9% in 2019 and will remain at the same rate as was expected by the report of World Employment and Social Outlook Trends 2019. But recently due to covid-19 outbreak the world economy has fallen very rapidly and all people without technical portion have lost their jobs. World is facing crisis and economy is reaching lowest percentage. This will in turn become the reason of losing jobs and unemployment will increase. Worldwide unemployment the age among 15-24 stood at 11.8 per cent, higher than other age brackets which can be disastrous in the near future.
Unemployment rates keep on increasing due to corona virus and are expected to reach 4% if lockdown remains up to May 3rd in Asia where India is severely hit because most of it depends up on job market which is closed.
According to the reports, the unemployment rate in India has reached to 7.8 % in February 2020, the highest since last October, from 7.2 % in the previous month. In rustic locations, the rate increased to 7.4 % from 6.0 percent in January 2020, while in city populations, it fell to 8.7 percent from 9.7 percent which is really a good sign for India. The highest jobless rates were recorded in Tripura with 28.45%, Haryana going to 25.8% and Jammu & Kashmir with 22.2 percent, while the lowest were recorded in Puducherry with 1.8%, Tamil Nadu at 2.1%) and Goa with 2.8% all the while.
Effects of Unemployment on society and individual
There are very serious consequences of unemployment which can make a person poor and result in crippling family members. According to the reports unemployed face frustration and mental disorder due to over thinking which leads to their death before their fixed time.
It leads to poor health conditions as due to mental pressure people suffer many psychological problems which in turn results in permanent health problems.
By losing job or income source a person not only himself or herself recedes to problems but his family members or those who depend up on him suffer the problems of essential commodities such a food, clothes and shelter. If a person is living on rent then more problems will confront him/her.
Jobless live in the world of fancy due to mental agony which makes them vulnerable to crime. This will affect society as somebody will be the victim, the criminal and the community related to criminal, because the criminal will either die or end up in jail and his/her kinship will be penniless.
It will be economically more disastrous as unemployed means without assets and family losses income which will lessen consuming and straight away economy will be affected. For unemployed govt. had to pay by providing schemes and govt. will be at loss of income.
To remove unemployment will be far away but we can lessen it. Education must be made skill focused. Students must not be made to wait for government jobs only rather they should acquire skills to earn for themselves and their families.
The largest portion of the population is agricultural so the love for agricultural practices to increase capital through this practice must be induced in educands and people by teachers and parents. The industrial sector must be manual labor conducive to be helpful to laborers. It must be supplemented with manual work.
More employment opportunities must be made available to the youth without corruption. People should become self-reliant and self-employment must be initiated. Agricultural production must be increased to help cottage industries to increase more labor opportunities.
Schemes like MNREGA must be initiated by the govt. for far-flung rural and mountainous areas. Small towns must be given a good share of investment for the developmental process so more opportunities for work will be able for youth.
Entrepreneurs should be encouraged by providing financial help from governments. Seasonal jobs are found in different sectors like agriculture so plantations, poultry, horticulture, dairying, animal husbandry, and many more practices should be encouraged.