The machine-building complex has a fairly wide range of products, it consists of a huge number of sub-sectors and each has its own special significance for the country as a whole and for its economy.
A special place is given to military engineering, which produces military equipment, weapons and equipment.
For each branch of engineering there are their own factors that affect the location of enterprises, for military engineering this is a military-strategic factor (distance from state borders, location of the most important enterprises in “closed cities” with restricted access).
The highest concentration of military enterprises in Russia in the Urals.
Nuclear Weapons Production
The specification of nuclear weapons includes the extraction of uranium and its processing into concentrate, the production of fuel elements for nuclear power plants, the assembly of nuclear weapons and the processing of nuclear waste.
The main production of nuclear weapons is concentrated in the “closed” cities, the existence of some of them until the 90s was classified. The main centers for the production of nuclear weapons are Sarov in the Nizhny Novgorod region and Snezhinsk, here are located research and development organizations.
On the world market, Russia ranks second in the production of military equipment (23%), second only to the United States (32%). It was in 1949 when the first nuclear weapon was tested. Since 1991, the leaders of the United States and the USSR have concluded an agreement on the withdrawal of nuclear weapons for their destruction. Currently, Rosatom is in charge of the entire production and processing of nuclear weapons.
Rocket and Space Industry
This industry is distinguished by high technical complexity and high technology intensity. Leading scientific and design centers are located in the central part of Russia.
The industry is engaged in the production and modernization of combat missile systems and space-launched missile systems, as well as military space technology. Most of the state-owned enterprises. 64% of all enterprises are research organizations and only 22% are assembly organizations.
Since 2005, Russia has managed to maintain its leading position in launching spacecraft. This is primarily due to the demand for launch vehicles. In the global market, the rocket-space share of Russia is 40%.
Most of the ballistic missiles built in conjunction with Ukrainian manufacturers, only about 40 missiles collected purely on the Russian production. Most of the components are imported from Ukraine.
Airplanes, helicopters, engines, etc. are produced in this direction. The location of enterprises in the sub-sector is characterized by the availability of skilled labor resources, as well as good cooperation opportunities, so the choice falls mainly on large cities.
The main producers of military aircraft are the United Aircraft Building Organization and Russian Helicopters.
In Russia, the military aircraft industry specializes in the production of such aircraft as:
- reconnaissance Tu-214 R,
- combat training aircraft Yak-130.
Also in Russia, a super-maneuverable multi-class fighter class 4 ++. Ss 2017 will begin the development of the fifth-generation Su-35 fighter.
There are no special requirements for military shipbuilding, the enterprises of this sub-sector are located in the same cities as civil shipbuilding.
In this industry not only military vessels are produced, but also ammunition, weapons, artillery systems.
The most metal-consuming sub-industry is the production of armored vehicles. This means that enterprises are located mainly near metallurgical bases.
Until the 90s, military shipbuilding occupied one of the leading positions in the world, and it was assigned to 1/3 of all shipbuilding.
After the collapse of the USSR, many shipbuilding organizations came under state control. Orders for the production of warships also decreased significantly.
Estimated for 2018, the construction of non-nuclear submarines and submarine rocket carriers has a satisfactory position, while the construction of the main classes of surface ships is in a state of crisis.
Russia cooperates in the military engineering industry with more than 80 countries of the world, and supplies its products to 62 countries of the world. Over 50% of products goes for exports.
State Aviation Plant Number 1
The plant was launched in 1894 and was a bicycle repair shop. Later it was converted to the release of aircraft and their components.
At first, the plant specialized in the production of reconnaissance aircraft and fighter aircraft. The world’s first two-stage rocket P3 descended from the assembly line of the plant.
In 1941, the plant was evacuated to the city of Kuibyshev, the plant quickly entered service at a new location.
In 1945, the plant was awarded the Order of the Red Banner for the exemplary accomplishment of the task in times of military operations.
In the postwar years, the plant mastered the production of the first MiG-9 jet aircraft.
In the 50s, the plant was engaged in the production of bombers.
Soon the plant was redeveloped into the production of rocket and space products, this required a significant restructuring of the production workshops. The plant also underwent retraining of engineering force, modification and production of complex tooling.
In 1961, the plant was renamed Progress Plant. Currently, the plant aims to produce only military products.